Islam and the Economy

Science in Islam

It is not permissible to understand science in Islam as it only means knowledge of its provisions and ethics, and that there is no relation to Islam by cosmic science or material science, such an understanding is wrong. So Islam has come to encompass all human activities, including universe research. Which means that at the same time the observer universe is subject to its perception and research, and that its phenomena are not in the vague, ambiguous, inexplicable, and that it can benefit from the universe and exploit its goods to the widest extent to secure his life and well-being. And the sun and the sun, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, are brought up by his command, that is in it signs for wise men. «16: 12». The guidance of the Quran in this regard is an affirmation of the spirit of the correct scientific approach that prompts man to try to explore the unknown of this universe and its phenomena on the basis of confidence in human ability and science in the face of nature. And it is significant that the science in Islam is not limited to a certain extent the words of the Prophet peace be upon him: "You know the affairs of your world" This opens the door wide to the mind to draw from the types of science is not limited to him, including on matters of politics, economy, social and others, if it contained a text.

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Ruling on science in Islam

Islam considers science to be sufficient In this regard, we refer to what Imam al-Ghazali has said nine centuries ago in the book "Reviving the Sciences of Religion" under the title "The Declaration of Knowledge, which is the imposition of sufficiency": The imposition of sufficiency (of the good science) is all the science is indispensable in the strength The things of the world, such as medicine, are necessary in the need for the survival of eternity, and as the calculation is necessary in transactions and the division of commandments, inheritance and others. And this is the science that if the country is exempted from the embarrassment, do not be surprised that we say that medicine and calculation of the competencies of competencies, the assets of industries also from the duties of competencies such as agriculture, knitting and others.

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Science in Islamic Civilization

Muslims invented new sciences that were not known before them and called them Arabic names such as chemistry, algebra and trigonometry. From our readings of the Islamic scientific heritage we find that Muslim scholars have devised the scientific method in research and writing. It was based on experience, observation and conclusion. Muslim scholars have included illustrations in scientific books, machine drawings and surgeries. Detailed geographical and astronomical mapping. Muslims have invented encyclopedias and scientific dictionaries according to the alphabet. The discovery of the paper industry and the spread of the craft of the Islamic world favored the spread of manuscripts and their reproduction. The Arabic manuscripts varied between translator and author, and Islamic libraries were not just bookshelves in our time, but the main library had a translation, copying, transport and conservation equipment. The translators were of all races who knew Arabic with their native language. Then he reviewed their translations, Arab scientists to fix linguistic errors. The move and the scribes were tasked to issue new copies of every modern or old Arabic scientific book. The largest libraries were attached to universities and major mosques. In Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, Kairouan University, Cordoba, and the University of Qarawine, the oldest universities in the world, the manuscripts were in thousands in every science and branch of science. All were easy to read or borrow. The reader was entitled to borrow any book, whatever its value and without a mortgage. Therefore, the illiteracy rate at this time was almost nonexistent. The Quran was learned in writing and obligatory reading. While illiteracy in Europe between the ninth and the twelfth centuries was more than 95%. In his book Islamic civilization in the fourth century AH, orientalist Adam Metz says that Europe at the time had no more than a limited number of monasteries' libraries. History does not know a nation interested in the acquisition of books and pride as did the Muslims in the ages of their renaissance and prosperity. Every house had a library. Rich families were proud of their rare and precious manuscripts. Some merchants traveled to the far corners of the earth to obtain a rare or modern manuscript. Caliphs and wealthy people were paying generously for any new manuscript.

The scientific approach of Muslims

Early scientific methods were developed in the Islamic world. There was great progress in methodology, especially in the eleventh century AD, through Ibn al-Haitham's work, which is considered a pioneer in experimental physics. The most important development in the scientific method is the use of experimentation and quantification to distinguish between a set of equal scientific theories within the framework of experimental orientation in general. Ibn al-Haitham wrote the book of optics, which corrected many in the field of optics, and proved empirically that the vision is due to the rays of light entering the eye, and invented the first device resembling the camera they called (the cabin) to demonstrate the physical nature of light rays. Ibn al-Haitham was also described as the "First World" for his innovation of the scientific method, and his pioneering work in the field of visual cognition is an introduction to natural psychology and experimental psychology.

Peer review

The process of peer review is the process by which a committee of doctors investigates the medical care provided to determine whether acceptable standards of care have been met. The oldest of these reviews was found in the book "Doctor's Literature" written by Ishaq ibn Ali al-Rahawi 854-931) from Al-Raha in Syria. His work, as well as later Arab medical evidence, says that the visiting doctor should always record repeated observations of the patient's condition at each visit. When the patient heals or dies, these observations are reviewed by a local medical board composed of other doctors, reviewed and determined whether his or her performance has met the required standards of medical care. If the results of such reviews are negative, the practitioner may be sued by a poorly treated patient. The first medical peer review, evaluation of research results in terms of efficiency, relevance and originality of qualified experts, was described in the "Medical Notes and Articles" published by the Royal Society in Edinburgh in 1731. The current peer review system evolved from this 18th-century process.

Muslim Scholars

The number of Muslim scholars is many and not in one scientific field, but in all types of science. Thus, it is difficult to mention all their names, but from the list of Muslim scholars can be learned by many Muslim scholars who were born and provided much knowledge .

Causes of delayed Muslims

There are reasons why Muslims are suffering from delays and poor education after their progress .

  • The weakness of the Ottoman Empire and its isolation
  • Islamic states and peoples were colonized and colonized countries suffered from colonial powers and education suffered and faced difficulties during that period.

Some even say that this is the main reason and they cite Egypt during the rule of Muhammad Ali, where he rose up in the country scientifically, economically and militarily. He joined the Sudan and the Levant and the other. He defeated the Ottomans in 1833 and almost took over the capital. But Russia, Britain and France protected the Ottoman Sultan. Only Syria and the island of Crete. In 1839 the Sultan fought but forced him to retreat at the London Conference in 1840 after his fleet was destroyed in the Battle of Navarre. And imposed on him to determine the numbers of the army and exclusive to the rule of Egypt to be a self-rule to be followed by his oldest children.

At present, there are other reasons, including:

  • Scientific diligence is divided into purely research and applied. Pure research looks at materials and natural phenomena to identify their properties. The results of these researches are far-reaching, some of which call for decades. Applied research focuses on improving the properties of materials, natural resources, manufactures and machines used by humans. Most of the applied studies are carried out at the request of the beneficiary of the results, so they are generally short-term, requiring several months to several years. In most developed countries, governments support pure, long-term research. Applied research is supported by the private sector with more than double the amount allocated by governments in some cases. The situation in the Arab world is different, because the private sector does not support scientific research locally because it relies mainly on research results outside the Arab world. At the same time, budgets set by governments for scientific research are less than half a percent of public income. In developed countries, governments spend more than 2% of their budgets on research. This difference explains why the Arab world is late in the field of scientific research, which does not allow participation in what is happening in the world of invention and production of what people use. In order to change the current situation, it is necessary to find a means to support scientific research until the day when governments have doubled research budgets, in which the private sector plays a significant role in supporting future research.
  • Emigrated by scientists and university graduates abroad. The proportion of graduates who wish to emigrate from their country to 90% in some Arab and Islamic countries.
  • The low level of per capita income makes the possibility of spending money for education less than other countries .
  • Lack of development of pre-university education .

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